Understanding Hardware (hardware) Computers

Understanding of the hardware or in the Indonesian language is also called by the name of the hardware is one component of a computer that is the nature of his instrument can be seen and touched by humans in the form of direct or real, which serves to support the process of computerization.

Hardware can work on orders that have been specified therein, or which is also referred to by the term instruction set. With the commands that can be understood by the hardware, the hardware can perform many activities that have been determined by the command.

Physically, the computer consists of several components is a system. System is the components work together to form a unity. If one component does not work, will result in a computer is not functioning properly. This computer components including hardware elements in the category (hardware). Based on the function, the computer hardware is divided into:

1. divice input (input units)

2. Process devices (processing units)

3. Output device (output units)

4. Backing Storage (storage unit)

5. Peripherals (additional unit)

basic components of computer input, process, output and storage. Input device consists of a keyboard and mouse, Process device is a microprocessor (ALU, Internal Communication, and Control Registers section), Output devices consist of a monitor and printer, external memory storage consists of hard drives, floppy drives, CD ROM, magnetic tape. Internal storage memory comprises RAM and ROM. While Peripheral Device component is an additional component or as a component that does not exist or not exist previously. Peripheral Component's an example: TV Tuner Card, Modem, Capture Card.

1. Input Unit (Input Device)

This unit serves as a medium for data entry from the outside in a memory and processor to be processed to produce the necessary information. Input devices or input units are commonly used in personal computers (PCs) is the keyboard and mouse, keyboard and mouse is a unit that connects users (users) with a computer. In addition there is the joystick, which is used for playing games or computer games. Then the scanner to take pictures as digital images that can be manipulated. Touch panel, using a finger touch user can perform a file access process. Microphone, to record the sound into a computer.

Serves as a media input device for entering data from outside the system into a memory and processor for processing and producing the necessary information. Data is entered into the computer system can be shaped input signal input and maintenance. Shaped input signal data entered into the computer system, while the input-shaped maintenance program used to process the data entered. So in addition to input device used to enter data can also be used to enter the program. Based on their characteristics, input devices can be classified into two namely:

• equipment is a direct input, ie input that is inserted directly processed by the processing equipment. For example: keyboard, mouse, touch screen, light pen, digitizer graphics tablet, scanner.

• Tools indirect input, input via a particular medium before an input is processed by the processing equipment. For example: punched cards, floppy disks, hard disk.

Unit of input or input device is composed of several kinds of devices are:

• equipment is a direct input, ie input that is inserted directly processed by the processing equipment. For example: keyboard, mouse, touch screen, light pen, digitizer graphics tablet, scanner.

• Tools indirect input, input via a particular medium before an input is processed by the processing equipment. For example: punched cards, floppy disks, hard disk.

Unit of input or input equipment consists da. Keyboard

Unit of input or input device is composed of several kinds of devices are:

a. Keyboard

The keyboard is the most important input unit in a data processing by computer. The keyboard can function entering letters, numbers, special characters as well as media for the user (users) to perform other commands are needed, such as saving files and opening files. Creation of a computer keyboard from a typewriter models which are created and patented by Christopher Latham in 1868, and in 1887 the company produced and marketed by Remington. Digunakanan current keyboard is a QWERTY type, in 1973, the keyboard was established as a standard keyboard ISO (International Standards Organization). The number keys on the keyboard consists of 104 keys. Keyboard now that we know have some kind of port, ie serial port, ps2, usb and wireless.




Keyboard Type:

1.) QWERTY

2.) Dvorak

3.) KLOCKENBERG

The keyboard is usually used is a QWERTY style keyboard, which is shaped like keys on a typewriter. QWERTY keyboard has four sections:

1. typewriter keys

2. numeric key

3. function key

4. special function key.

b. Mouse

Mouse is one of the input unit (input device). The function of this tool is to move the pointer or cursor quickly. In addition, orders can be as practical and faster than with a keyboard. Mouse began to be used optimally since the operating system has been based GUI (Graphical User Interface). electrical signals as a mouse input device is generated by a small ball inside the mouse, in accordance with the shifts or movement. Most of the mouse consists of three buttons, two buttons which are generally only used the left button and right button. When this mouse is also equipped with rewind button (the scroll), where is this button located in the middle. The term suppression is called with the left button click (Click) where the emphasis is going to function when the mouse is on a designated object, but if not at a designated object of this emphasis will be ignored. There are also other terms that referred to by dragging (drag) that is pressing the left mouse button without releasing it with as he moved. This drag will cause the object will be moved or copied into another object and other possibilities. The emphasis of the left mouse button twice quickly and regularly referred to as a double click (double click) while pressing the right mouse button once called by right-clicking (right click) Mouse port which consists of several serial mouse, mouse ps / 2, usb and wireless .



Wireless Mouse

c. Touchpad

These usually enter the unit can be found on laptops and notebooks, using your fingertips. Usually, this unit can be used instead of the mouse. In addition to the touchpad is a kind of model units that enter the pointing stick and trackball.






d. Light Pen

Light pen is an electronic pointer is used to modify and to design images with a screen (monitor). Light pen has a sensor that can transmit light signals to a computer that is then recorded, which monitors work by recording the electronic signals of six lines per second.


e. Joy Stick and Paddle Games

It is usually used in the game (games) computer. Joy Stick is usually shaped rod, while the games are usually paddle-shaped or square box made of plastic with buttons that will govern the motion of an object in a computer.



f. Barcode

Barcode included in the input unit (input device). The function of this tool is to read a code that is shaped boxes or thick vertical lines are then translated in the form of numbers. These codes are usually attached to food products, beverages, electronic equipment and books. Today, every cashier in a supermarket or retail outlet in Indonesia to identify the products it sells with a barcode.




g. Scanner

Scanner is a device that can function to copy or copy images or text that is then stored into computer memory. From next computer memory, stored in the hard disk or floppy disk. This scanner function like photocopiers, photocopiers difference is that the result can be seen on paper while the scanner results can be displayed on the monitor in advance so that we can make improvements or modifications and can then be restored either in the form of text files or image files. In addition there is also a scanner to scan a picture that is used to detect the computer answer sheet. Scanners used to scan the computer answer sheet is commonly used IR SCAN to LJK (Computer answer sheets) on the general test and the National Examination. Scan type consists of light called optical sensors, which can recognize the type 2B pencil. Scanner on the market is a scanner to copy pictures or photos and usually also equipped with OCR (Optical Character Recognition) to copy or copy the object in text form.




Now been developed scanner technology with DMR (Digital Mark Reader), with a work system similar to the scanner to the computer answer sheet correction, biodata and forms such as forms for school choice. With the DMR is not the answer sheets must be answered uses pencils 2 B, but can use other stationery such as pens and markers, and can use plain paper.

h. Digital Cameras

Technological development has been so sophisticated, so the computer can accept input from the camera. This camera is called Digital Cameras with image quality better and better compared to how to copy images using the scanner. Sharpness of images from digital cameras is determined by the pixel. The ease and practicality of this tool is very helpful many activities and jobs. Digital cameras do not need a movie camera as usual. Pictures taken with digital cameras stored in the camera memory in the form of files, and can be moved or transferred to a computer. Digital cameras on the market today there are various types, ranging from the type of static cameras to take pictures until the camera that can merekan living or moving images such as video.


i. Microphones and Headphones

Input unit has a function to record or enter a voice that will be stored in computer memory or to listen to the voice. With microphone, you can record sound or can speak to people we want at the time chating. Use of this microphone would require other hardware which receives voice input of sound card and speaker for listening.


j. Graphics Pads

Technology Computer Aided Design (CAD) can make the design of buildings, houses, car engines, and aircraft by using the Graphics Pads. Graphics are the inputs to the input pads for drawing objects on the monitor. Graphics pads that used to have two types. First, using a needle (stylus) which is connected to a pad or cushion using a low voltage, which in these pads are touch sensitive membrane surface (touch-sensitive membrane surface). Low voltage that is sent and then translated into the coordinates of X - Y. Second, using a touch sensitive pad (touch-sensitive pad) without using a needle. How it works is to put on pads of drawing paper, and then written in pencil.



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